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See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest. up Log in.

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Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. A reviewer of "The Family: An Historical and Social Study," published a few years ago, criticised this volume in the following words: " Perhaps the greatest lack of this book is a preface, for the merit of a compilation of this sort depends upon the end aimed at and the method followed.

The history of all ages and of all nations offers the most abundant sources for romancing, and many an historian has paid more attention to the picturesque and romantic sides of the questions be- fore him, than to the bare matter of fact. Prescott's " Conquest of Mexico," Abbot's " History of Napo- leon," are delightful reading for everybody, but also most unfaithful guides to the earnest historian. Another stumbling block for the historical writer is to look upon events, occurred in past ages, with the eyes of to-day, and thus to impute to the actors in these events motives, which must remain hidden 6 Preface.

The writer of this volume has tried to avoid both, Scylla and Charybdis, and has at the same time taken care, not to become a mere annalist. How- far he has succeeded, the reader must judge.

It is perhaps proper, that a citizen of New York should write of the Ohio Valley, because by the trea- ties of 1andmade on New York territory and by New York influences, the former owners of the Ohio territory, the aboriginal rulers of the eastern half of this continent, placed the largest share of their country under the protection of New York, and because the latter State made a union of the Colonies possible, by ceding to New England claimants — claimants under Royal paper titles — so much of the territory, derived from the original owners.

The student of American history will find some hitherto unpublished and unknown material in this volume ; beyond that it is only an arrangement of already known facts, scattered through a library of books on the subject.

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Chapter I. Discovery g II. Geographical Knowledge 17 III. The Beginning of the Struggle for Supremacy 60 V. The Flag of St. Indian Wars IX. North and West of the Ohio X. Who was the first man of European race, to see the waters of the Ohio Valley? Was it Ferdinand de Soto, the Adelantado of Cuba, upon whom Emperor Charles V, had conferred the title of Marquis of all the lands, which he should conquer on his expedition to Florida in ? Luis Hernandez de Biedma, who accompanied this expe- dition, tells us, that after marching about in what are now the States of Florida, Georgia and Alabama, for eighteen months, the explorers found themselves in November,in the Province of Chicaza, or Chicaca, where they suffered extremely from the cold, and where "more snow falls than in Spain.

What was his authority for this statement?

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InSir John Hawkins left England with a squadron of ships on an errand, which to-day might be considered piracy and high-handed robbery. He expected, to make himself a rich man by pillaging Spanish settlements in Central America. Occur- rences, which it is not necessary to detail here, com- pelled him to put part of his crew ashore, probably within the limits of modern Nicaragua. Some of these sailors made their way across the North Ameri- can continent to within fifty miles of Cape Breton, where a French fishing vessel picked them up and carried them home to England.

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Did they enter the valley of the Ohio? We may suppose so. The story of their wanderings, as told to " Sir Francis Walsingham, one of her Majesty's Queen Elizabeth principal Secretaries, Sir George Peckham and others of good judgment" inhardly mentions any locality, by the peculiarities of which their route might be traced, except the Crystal mountain, now Mount Washington, in New Hampshire, until they came to Ochala and the Saganas. In Colonial Days. An essay on the tale of this trampf says: "It would appear, that he Ingram and his two compan- ionsleft the border of Texas and started for the Atlantic coast presumably due eastwhere he hoped, to find some English vessel.

He appears to have reached or have heard of, the Altamaha, in Georgia and kept on north-easterly, passing through the present territory of New York, Connecticut and Massachusetts. Shea, History, March, Champlain gave to the world the first positive information concerning the great inland sea, which though not belonging to the Ohio Valley, borders it on the north. He saw its neighbor, Lake Ontario, and received, in 5, his knowledge of Lake Erie from Etienne Brule, a traveller on its waters or along its shores. Synod of the Reformed Church.

Here we recognize the fingers of the Five Nations in the pie of colonial Indian policy. French- men, knowing of the tribes south of the lakes, had to go, if they wanted to trade with them, by the so-called Ottawa route, because the Iroquois hated the French and would only in exceptional cases allow them to enter into, but not pass through their territory. Nearly half a century had passed after Brule's discovery of Lake Erie, when a French missionary was told, inof a river nearly as large as the St.

Lawrence, taking its course south- west and west. A few years later Dallier, another missionary, received also some vague information concerning this western river, which, after having fol- lowed it for seven to eight months, would bring the traveller to a place where the land was cut off, that is, where the river fell into the sea.

Dallier's inform- ants called this river the " Ohio. Many Indian tribes were said to live on this river, none of whom had ever been seen in Canada, and some of them were so numerous, that they had twenty villages. He obtained from the governor of Canada not only liberty to go on this venturesome journey, but also a patent authorizing him, to make all kinds of discoveries and soldiers to assist him.

Fathers Dallier and Gallinee were sent with him, and on the 7th of July,the travellers started from La Salle's seigneurie of La Chine. After thirty days of toiling up the St. Lawrence and breasting the waves of Lake Ontario, they reached the Seneca village on the Genesee river, where they hoped to obtain guides, who could lead them to the Ohio.

They learned, that the head-waters of the river were not far, but instigated, it is suspected, by the Jesuit, Pere Fremin, stationed there, the Senecas tried to dissuade La Salle and his companions, the missionaries of the Sulpitian order, from the journey because, they said, "if you go to the Ohio, the In- dians there will kill you. These guides told, that it would take a march of one and a half months to reach the first tribe on the Ohio.

While preparing to start, a countryman of the travellers arrived at the same village. It was Joliet, a native of Canada, who had originally been destined for the church, but who driven by a restless spirit to adopt In Colonial Days.

He told of a tribe of Poutaouatamies, living on the great river, leading to the Chaouanons, and this induced the Sulpitians, who probably mistook them for Out- aouacs, to decide that they would go there and try to convert them. After spending the fall and winter at Long Point, during which time, in October,they took formal possession, in the name of Louis XIV, of the lands on Lake Erie, they continued their journey along the north side of the lake, but while camping at Point Pelee, the lake robbed them of their altar service, and they decided to make their way home, via Detroit and the Ottawa river and to leave the Potawatomies to wallow in spiritual darkness a little longer.

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La Salle, who had been ill or feigned illness, when the Sulpitian brothers left him, continued his journey to Onondaga, New York. Here his men deserted him and he was compelled to make his way back to Canada all by himself. A biped of the genus tramp of to-day would perhaps not consider such a march a very great undertaking, but as may be imagined, it was a very different thing two hun- dred years ago, when there were no ro or rail- way tracks to follow, no hen-roosts to visit, no farm- 1 6 The Ohio Valley In Colonial Days.

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We derive very little information through La Salle, concerning the river Ohio or the country, through which he travelled, beyond the fact that he discovered the river and was the first white man who undoubtedly traversed the present State of Ohio. See Appendix A.

Two years later, inGen- eral Wood of Virginia was attacked by the discover- ing fever. Not that he went himself and like La Salle braved the terrors of an unknown wilderness ; the dignity of his exalted position as Major-General probably forbade that, — but he sent others to do the discovering for him, whose journal and remarks are given in the Appendix B. Winsor, Esq. These were the first information of and explora- tions into the valley of the Ohio.

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Notwithstanding the claim made by Dr. This nameless river receives a tributary from the south-east. Is the main stream meant for the Ohio and the tributary for the Great Kanawha? Then we must ask, whence did Wytfliet derive his information?

From Biedmas' ? Another Frenchman, Joliet, is the first to give us the name on his map of ; he tells us that the Ohio was then called Ouabouskigon, whence prob- ably is derived the name later given to it, of Wabash. A map without title or maker's name, three in Mr. Parkman's collection and probably belonging to the time, when little was as yet known of the newly dis- covered river and territory, calls it "la Riviere. Ohio, ainsi appellee par les Iroquois a cause de sa beaute, par oil le Sr. The jealousy with which the various discoverers and their friends looked upon each other, is well shown by a map, entitled "Carte de la nouvelle de- couverte que les Peres Jesuites ont fait en l'annee ," etc.

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The next cartographer, probably Franquelin, in his " Carte de l'Amerique Septentrionale et partie de la Meridionale" of restores the Ohio to its place, but again too near Lake Erie. On his map of the river is not only in a fairly correct place, but is also given various tributaries without names. Some of these he had learned when he made his map offor by that he tells us of the Ohio or Belle Riviere and calls a tributary coming from the east In Colonial Days.

Father Raffeix, S. A map phone chat lines karikeh pain the same year, 1called " Partie occidentale du Canada ou de la Nouvelle Franceou sont les Nations des Ilinois, de Tracy, les Iroquois, etc. Raudin, Frontenac's engineer, again ignores the Ohio, while a map made three years before in by Minet, "la Carte de la Louisiane" has the river in its full length, though without most of its tribu- taries and calling it in its middle course Ouabache, which name is changed in the lower to "le Chou- cagoua.

A map in the Parkman collection, without date or title, of which we find a sketch in Mr. IV, p. Parkman considers the work of the Jesuits and " the earliest representation of the 20 The Ohio Valley upper Mississippi, based perhaps on the reports of the Indians" shows in a fairly correct location for the Ohio river a stream, called Chaboussioua. Bellin, Ingenieurdu Roi et de la Marine, pub- lished, also intwo maps, which must find a place here.